Lucid Memories

A representation of Hans Christoffel past stories and his ghostly memories


“Lucid Memories” is a series of Pepper’s Ghost Projection installations that built as part of the Lifepatch projects that exhibited in two different cities on Belgium. The first project is a Lifepatch solo exhibition titled “IN SITU: Lifepatch – The Tale Of Tiger And Lion” in Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA) at 16 September 2017 until 7 January 2018, curated by Nav Haq and Alia Swastika. The second project is an exhibition titled “Tano Toba Saga” under the grand exhibition of “Europalia Art Festival Indonesia – 2017” with the main title called “Power and other things: Indonesia & Art (1835-now)” curated by Charles Esche and Riksa Afiaty in Palais des Beaux-Arts (BOZAR) Brussels at 18 October 2017 until 21 January 2018.

Both projects focused on presenting the two key figures and their relations within a small fragment of the North Sumatra long histories during the colonial era, which are Sisingamangaraja XII as the last king of Toba People and the Swiss-Dutch soldier Hans Christoffel who represents the Dutch empire with their colonization policies. It begins with an opportunity for Lifepatch to make brief research through various well-preserved Indonesian historical artefacts, narrations, and documents that well-preserved in the Museum Aan De Stroom at Antwerp and Bronbeek Museum at Arnhem, likewise the exploration through various places on North Sumatra that local histories mostly delivered orally and culturally as storytelling, theatre, song or even dance. Driven by the tendencies that history often articulated into several versions motivated by the perspective of ideology, politics, and even personal identity, instead of intending to summarize the long history of colonialism in North Sumatra and comparing each version to find the most proper version, through both projects, Lifepatch tried to present all the scattered historical fragments and its contrast attributes to emphasize its complexity through incorporating historical artwork and archival material, together with a major narration linking all the installations.

Those ideas brought me as part of Lifepatch have an interest in presenting a historical narration focused on Hans Christoffel’s figure whose existence is basically become an inseparable part of North Sumatra’s history during the colonial era. The tendencies of history that are strongly influenced by certain perspectives and identities brought the story of Hans Christoffel to have several slightly different versions, not just the fact that he was a “Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger” (KNIL) officer who succeeded in leading many military operations during the pacification of East Indische as the Dutch colony territory, including the obliteration of  Toba people guerrilla resistance in the Tapanoeli war by capturing their leader the Si Singamangaraja XII who eventually died on a battlefront. For some people, he would be defined as an evil person based on his bloodstained reputation who prefers to assault his prey and finish the kill without mercy. On the other side, some people would prefer to acknowledge him as a great soldier or a hero because of his achievements. Meanwhile, as we explore the archives during the research as part of a residency program fully supported by Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA), AIR Antwerpen, each well-preserved artefacts and documents such as military log-book, pictures, telegrams, letters, postcards, newspaper clippings within the museum archives seems to hide a particular story with a specific context, time periods and space that can be interpreted as scattered fragments of a bigger story. Eventually, the linkage of each material weaves a fairly long story that can be divided into four main chapters, which were the chapter about Christoffel’s military career during his services as an officer in the Royal Dutch East Indische Army, the chapter about his iconic military missions in North Sumatra when obliterating the Toba People resistance and captures their leader Si Singamangaraja XII, the chapter about his military achievement during the pacification of Dutch East Indische that brought him became one of the highly decorated soldiers and ended with his daily life after retired story as the final chapter.

However, while compiling Christoffel’s story, I met with a strange situation that sparked my curiosity. Although he was a person with great military achievement, received a knight title, and was awarded the Eresabel saber as one of the highest military awards for bravery in the Netherlands Kingdom, there are only a few artefacts or documents that could represent his story. Even in the Bronbeek Museum that prided itself as the central archive for preserving the Royal Dutch East Indische Army histories during the colonial era, its collection only presents Christoffel’s figure through several official military documents, old pictures, and his Eresabel.

Through the opportunities to have great discussions with Willy Durinx -Co-Curator “Collectie Christoffel” of Museum Aan De Stroom- who also allowed me to see some of his research, I learn many other interesting facts about Hans Christoffel based on information that preserved in a digital scan of several newspaper articles, few of Christoffel personal portrait picture, and buildings in around Antwerp and Kalmthout, Belgium.

The most interesting facts about Christoffel during his retirement days are well-preserved in an interview article within a newspaper called De Telegraaf that was published on 21 April 1940. It shows that he seems to try very hard to change his persona completely.

“I have done my duty in Indië, but nothing else. And it’s all so terribly long ago…”
“Thirty years ago, I dropped a curtain about everything that had happened. I shook off all my time in the jungle, started a new life, thought about the past as little as possible, searched for and found peace.

(Christoffel, De Telegraaf, 21 April 1940)


“With the history where everybody else would be happy to boast about, Christoffel has completely broken with it. He has burned all things from his Indischen time, reports, letters, pictures….”

(Article Writer, De Telegraaf, 21 April 1940)

It appears that to cover his deeply rooted and emotionally related memories, he needs more effort than just alienating his past life by changing his daily activities with a totally different way of life. He also implants new thought that what he had done in the past was merely carrying out his duties as a soldier, no less and no more. Even though he has to complete the assignments using methods that are considered to be vile and without mercy, he admits that “It was a messy job, but it has to be done”. Finally, to prevent his past life from being remembered, he burned all his personal notebooks, photographs, and various documents that could work as a  powerful stimulus to reenact the feelings and experiences of the past.

Compare to what Lifepatch learned from the Toba people in North Sumatra, they believe that memories of the past are very important things and must be always preserved as part of efforts to maintain their personal and community identities. Even though they no longer possess their own rightful heirloom and historical artefact because thousands of weapons, jewelry, textiles, and many other cultural objects had been taken from the battlefield, “donated under pressure” or just bought during the colonial era, the Toba people have their own way to preserve their history and delivering it to the next generations orally and culturally through storytelling, theatre, song or even dance.

Both of them appear to emphasize the fact that memory is an absolute necessity for the existence of history. At the same time, their memories manifested as a story that provides additional value to particular objects and makes them could be considered to be a treasure or historical artefact. Even though memory constantly requires objects or maybe particular keywords to recall back in our minds, the past can still exist in people’s heads and nowhere else. Just like what I learned from Christoffel’s answers during the interview with De Telegraaf. His efforts to cover up the past and made it no longer able to be remembered might be considered successful. Can’t be denied, his action not only affecting him personally but also made his past very difficult to reunite and retold accurately by anyone else. At the same time, how the way he refused to answer the questions by changing the conversation subject to his current life story seems to have a tendency that actually Christoffel’s subconscious mind still stored some traces of his past even though it can’t be easy to remember. Those memories keep waiting as a non-figurative entity, haunting him with the possibility that they could reappear clearly in his mind when he encounters certain things or a particular object. It will be revealed in our mind as several major pieces of information in the form of illusory images, which are assembled sequentially by our thoughts into a story with its own reality as if a transparent ghostly figure.

The phantasmagoria values of memories brought me to have an interest in the idea of presenting Christoffel’s past story narrations in the form of a non-figurative entity instead of presenting various historical artefacts in their original physical form. All of the artefacts were scanned and processed digitally to generate a series of imaginary objects as materials to produce animated videos. Through those videos, I tried to anthropomorphize them as if they were alive and kept trying to tell Christoffel’s memories that are still preserved until now.

The Hans Christoffel’s Historical Narration Videos on The Lucid Memories Installation
courtesy of Wisnu Wisdantio channel

In the end, those animated videos will be presented with illusion techniques that were discovered around the 16th century and popularized by John Pepper around 1862 in the Phantasmagoria performances so-called “Pepper’s Ghost“ technique. It’s a version of visual effects using glass and light to produce a reflection of a person or an object to appear on stage similar to a ghost or a hollow entity.

Besides bringing back Christoffel’s past in a form of memory as non-figurative entities, the installation of Lucid Memories is also used as a medium to raise several questions about the existence of historic artefacts that are usually taken from their original place and then will be valued, preserved, even presented as physical evidence to verify the truth of certain historical or cultural narratives within museums or other facilities. It’s closely related to the existence of various heritages and historical artefacts belong to the Toba people. Instead of being stored, cared for, and culturally becoming part of their rightful owner’s daily lives, many of these artefacts are stored and well-preserved in various museums abroad. Ironically, it becomes part of exhibitions to tell or represent historical narratives, which are actually just a small fragment of a bigger story.

Risen up by those questions, although many technological advances have been made in the field of visual technology, the Lucid Memories was built as a prototype of simple technology to convert a video became three-dimensional illusory images of particular artefacts to present historical or cultural narrations that can be shown in various places. Meanwhile, the artefacts in their physical form will always be protected and preserved in their original places.


Produced as part of “Power And Other Things: Indonesia & Art (1835 – Now)” Europalia Art Festival Indonesia 2017. Exhibited at the Palais des Beaux-Arts (BOZAR) in Brussels and Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA) in Antwerp, Belgium.

Residency and Research Documentation On Lifepatch Official Website:
* Documentation and Data of Hans Cristoffel Research during the residency program of Lifepacth within the Europalia Art Festival 2017

Reference Site:
* Details of “Power And Other Things: Indonesia & Art (1835 – Now)” Europalia Art Festival Indonesia on Europalia Art Festival official website.
* Details of IN SITU: Lifepatch – The Tale Of Tiger And Lion Exhibition on M HKA (Antwerp) official website.
* Details of Tano Toba Saga Exhibition on Metropolism Magazine Online Feature official website.

Related Articles On Lifepatch Official Website:
* Detail of the first residency program of Lifepacth within the Europalia Art Festival 2017
* Detail of notes of Lifepatch research about Si Singamangaraja XII and other main figures that related to the Tapanoeli war 1907
* Detail of the second residency program of Lifepacth within the Europalia Art Festival 2017
* Detail of Lifepatch participation on the Europalia Art Festival 2017 Exhibition

Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.3

Prototype of The Pepper’s Ghost Projector V.01.3 as a visual tool to display both holographic images and physical materials


Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.3 is the following up experiment of the Pepper’s Ghost holographic image projector with a single reflector Version V.01.1 and Version V.01.2, which are small experiments to make a simple projector tool for Pepper Ghost illusion that quite popular to use in various performance since successfully implemented by John Henry Pepper on the theatre performance during the production of Charles Dickens’s “The Haunted Man” in 1862.

Reviewing the former experiments, the Pepper Ghost holographic projector V.01.1 is a model that is based on the basic law of reflection, which is creating a ghostly image as a reflection of an actual object on a transparent mirror. As a mirror image, the ghostly image is a negative or opposite direction from the actual object. Meanwhile, the Pepper Ghost holographic projector V.01.2 is the basic model for further development, which is successfully installing a simple image inverting mechanism that makes the ghostly image as same as the actual image. In a simple explanation, the image inverting mechanism is adding a flat mirror to reflect the actual object and create a negative image, which is to be reflected or appear in the 45-degree transparent sheet as a ghost illusion that is similar to the actual object or a positive image.

The Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector V.01.3 experiment is trying to develop a connection between the Pepper’s Ghost illusion and physical object. Based on notes from the V.01.2 experiment, the implementation of inverting mirror made the source image reflected twice caused an affect the final result, which is the accumulation of distance between the actual image, flat mirror and transparent reflector brought the ghostly image reflection equal with the distance accumulation and seems projected far behind the box.

Under this phenomenon, The Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector V.01.3 experiment is focusing on building a compartment to support the connection between the illusion image and the physical object, which is more into the measurement of the projection image result distance from the 45-degree clear screen as a point to determine the location of physical object base on its value, such as became the foreground, the background, or became at the same level with the holographic projection result.

The concept became based on designing and developing the Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.3 model. Furthermore, some ideas also determined the projector design, such as:

  • The Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.3 model was designed as a wooden box that has 2 compartments, which are the illusion mechanism compartment and the holographic projection with the physical object compartment.
  • The illusion mechanism compartment is the place where the image source device is hidden and reflected through both the flat mirror and the transparent mirror. During the experiment, a 17″ television is chosen as the image source under the hypothesis that the device is a common electronic tool that could be found easily in almost every household and it has medium-sized that still could be easy to hide within the Pepper Ghost V.01.3 Box.
  • The projection compartment is the place where the animated image illusion will appear with the physical object. Within the experiment, the compartment of pepper ghost illusion will be designed to support a medium-sized object that could be found easily in every household, which has approximately 30 – 40 cm tall or have a similar size to the tall or height of the image source.

During the test of Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector V.01.3, an animated video will be played simultaneously on the 17″ television that is hidden in a small image source compartment to be reflected or projected by both of flat mirror and a diagonal transparent sheet to the physical object compartment that already placed an old Storm Lamp. The connection between the animated video as “the ghost” and the old lamp as a physical object is arranged to build the story with the title “The Ghost Lamp

The result of the Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.3 development

The Ghost Lamp – Pepper Ghost Holographic Projection
courtesy of Wisnu Wisdantio channel

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The V.01.3 prototype and schematic became the base of several Peppers Ghost Holographic Projector models development for an exhibition installation so-called “The Lucid Memories” as part of the Lifepatch exhibition projects under the framework of Europalia Indonesia 2017 in Belgium.

The first model was a V.01.3 enforced with a steel structure. The model was designed as a single object that could become both a stand-alone installation and part of a bigger exhibition concept. However, the structure’s main function wasn’t only to support the wooden box, it also became the box height adjustment to achieve the spectator’s eye level. Produced with help of Wiratmo Amin Nugroho, a craftsman and also a musician from Salatiga city, the model was supported with a knock-down system and designed as part of the Lifepatch exhibition with the title “IN SITU: Lifepatch – The Tale Of Tiger And Lion” in Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA) – Antwerp at 16 September 2017 until 7 January 2018.


The second model was a mini V.01.3. The model was designed for a tablet computer with a 10″ display size as the source image or object. Produced with help of the Pro-Studio, an acrylic cutting laser small company in Yogyakarta, the mini V.01.3 was built with 3 mm thick acrylic combined with a 1,5 mm flat mirror as the image inverter and 3/4 mm plexiglass as the transparent sheet reflector.

The mini V.01.3 model itself was designed with the title “The Lucid Memories” installation as part of all the Lifepatch exhibitions during Europalia Indonesia 2017 in Belgium, which were the “IN SITU: Lifepatch – The Tale Of Tiger And Lion” exhibition in the Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen (M HKA) – Antwerp and the “Tano Toba Saga” within the “Power and other things: Indonesia & Art (1835-now)” in Palais des Beaux-Arts (BOZAR) – Brussels at 18 October 2017 until 21 January 2018.

Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.2

Prototype of The Pepper’s Ghost Projector V.01.2


Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.2 is the following up mini-experiment after the experiment of The Pepper’s Ghost Projector V.01.1. It’s a small experiment about how to make a projector tool to create a simple Pepper Ghost illusion that is quite popular to use in various performances since successfully implemented by John Henry Pepper on the theatre performance during the production of Charles Dickens’s “The Haunted Man” in 1862.


The Magic Lantern How To Buy And How To Use It and How To Raise A Ghost by “A Mere Phantom” (1876)

During the development of Pepper Ghost Projector V.01.1, there were several problems noted about the first model that need to enhance in the development of Pepper Ghost Projector V.01.2, which are the source image device position flexibility, the mirror effect of reflection that creates the ghost image as a negative image and the last note is about the transparent sheet thickness in order to make a proper ghostly image.

The first development is switching the cell phone position, which is moved from under the reflector structure to the top position, which allows the cell phone could change or move easily without disturbing the position of the projector box. At the same time, a mirror will be added as the reflector device’s new attachment and placed face by face with the cell phone, which is used to invert the source image as a negative image. Instead of reflecting the image from the actual source, the transparent sheet is actually reflecting the negative image on the mirror glass and inverting it back as a positive image.

The second repair made on the first model of Pepper Ghost projector is changing the former transparent sheet material in order to decrease the parallax that happened, which is replacing it with a 0.5 mm thick acrylic or plexiglass sheet.

The last arrangement is to make a box structure base on a new concept schematic and painted the box with a black matte colour to prevent the reflection of images from all the sides of the projector to the main screen.

The conclusion from the model of Pepper Ghost holographic projector V.01.2 experiment is working as expected. It already solves all problem notes on the V.01.1 model, which is successfully replacing the source image device position, the addition of a simple image inverting mechanism, and solving the last note with a new material thickness to decrease the parallax effect. At this point, although The Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector V.01.2 schematic model became the simple basic projector with a single reflector model for another development, it still has some development notes, such as:

  • The implementation of the inverting mirror will make the actual image reflected twice to create the ghostly image. It brought a distance effect between the reflector and its ghost image result, which made the ghostly image reflected or appear on the transparent screen projected seems far behind the box.
  • Each material has its own behaviour when reacting with lights, which will affect the pepper ghost result. During the experiment of pepper Ghost Holographic Projector V.01.2, the plexiglass sheet with 0.5 mm thickness that use to replace the former screen made the projection image result seems glowing. Furthermore, it became new knowledge that every material will develop various effects on the Holograph projection image.

Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector V.01.1

Prototype of The Pepper’s Ghost Projector V.01.1


Pepper Ghost Holographic Projector With Single Reflector is a mini-experiment influenced by The “Return of Tupac Shakur” performance as a result of big collaboration production between Dr Dre’s production company and AV Concepts, which was utilizing the Musion® Eyeliner™ system in order to resurrect the late of Tupac Shakur as a 3D Holographic projection performing on stage with hip-hop music legends Dr Dre and Snoop Dogg at Coachella Valley Music & Arts Festival the Empire Polo Field on April 15, 2012.

Tupac Hologram Snoop Dogg and Dr Dre Perform Coachella Live 2012
courtesy of Snoop Dogg’s Official Channel on at

Musion™’s holographic projection system is a visual platform that is popularized by AV Concept in order to bring a new communication technique. It is presented as a live visual performance by transforming and combining Pepper’s Ghost optical illusion technique with an interactive 3D holographic video to develop a three-dimensional illusion that fools the audience’s brain into thinking of the illusion image as a real figure.

courtesy of Musion Holograms Official Channel on at

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Historically, Pepper’s Ghost is an illusion technique that was actually discovered around the 16th century by a scientist called Giambattista Della Porta on the Italian Peninsula. This illusion was re-discovered around 1862 by British scientist Henry Dircks who try to develop the Dircksian Phantasmagoria, a version of visual effects using glass and light for established or used to make a ghost appear on stage within the phantasmagoria performances. However, Dircks was unsuccessful in selling his idea to the theatre because it required rebuilding the theatres that were too complicated and expensive. Later after John Henry Pepper joined the project, he came up with an easy way to implement Dirck’s effect on the theatre performance during the production of Charles Dickens’s “The Haunted Man” in 1862. Since then, although John Pepper tries to share the credit with Hendry Dircks, this optical illusion technique became so popular to be called “The Pepper’s Ghost“.

The Pepper Ghost illusion is a form of visual hacking trick that involves the physical phenomena created by the law of reflection principles, such as the angle of the incident ray is equal to the angle of the reflection ray when hitting a flat mirror and the behaviour of light when travels to the spectator’s eyes as they view the image of a virtual object in a mirror. The appearance of the ghostly object in Pepper’s Ghost illusion is the reflection of an object hidden from the spectator’s sight view on a plat of glass or a sheet of plexiglass that is installed with a 45-degree angle and works as a mirror. Meanwhile, the transparency of glass or plastic allows the spectator to see a reflected “ghost” object while still being able to watch the environment behind the transparent surface. The other keys to the trick are lighting and the design of the hidden room where the actual “ghosts” are placed, which is entirely designed as a dark room and painted black. The main concept of the room design is to absorb the light and leave the actual “ghosts” as the only object that catches the light and will be reflected or appear on the glass.

The Magic Lantern How To Buy And How To Use It and How To Raise A Ghost by “A Mere Phantom” (1876)

Today, through the development of visual media technology, the source object that is reflected as the “Ghost” is replaced by high-quality video projection technology that combines motion capture technology and animation or Computer Generated Imaging (CGI), which allows people to bring the “digital doubles” of celebrities and political world leaders can be virtually projected and presented.

Holographic Projection Pepper Ghost setup with Christie projectors
courtesy of Glimm Display Official Channel on at

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Pepper’s Ghost Holographic Single Reflector Projector V.01.1 was developed as the first attempt to create a holographic projector based on the John Pepper illusion scheme and the design of AV Concept installation for Tupac Shakur performance, which is made as simple as possible and easy to make with common materials.

The first illusion experiment phase is the preparation of the objects that will be reflected as “the Ghost”. The actual ghost object is an image or an animated object that is designed based on John Pepper’s hidden dark room and the actual “ghosts” concept. The main objects that will be reflected or appear on the glass are made as a figure in white or bright colour on top of a black background, in order to make a transparent mirror that will absorb the low intensity of light from the black background and only catches or reflecting the high intensity of light from the actual “ghosts”. In the experiment, the easiest device to play or preview the image or animated object is a cellular phone, which is a quite common thing that can be owned by most people.

The second phase is the preparation of glass or transparent devices as the actual ghost image reflector. Based on the law of reflection, the object and the spectator have to be in a line and facing the mirror to make the spectator allows to see the object’s reflection. Therefore, the transparent mirror will be placed 45-degree facing both the image source and the spectator’s eyes.


During the experiment, the reflector model was made with a 3 mm thick acrylic sheet, which is built as a small box construction in order to be placed on top of the smartphone and cover all the display area.


The conclusion from the first model of Pepper Ghost holographic reflector V.01 experiment is spread to various results. As expected, the Pepper Ghost holographic projection from the “ghost” image is working well, which is only the white image that successfully reflected or appeared on the screen and the black part of an image absorbed and unreflected. However, there are still notes of some problems that need to be repaired, such as:

  • The position of the holographic projector that was placed on top of the cell phone as the image source made some minor problems because the cell phone isn’t flexible and hard to be moved when needed to change the source object.
  • The projection image that is reflected in the transparent sheet is a mirror image of the image sources or the negative image sources. Furthermore, to make the projection image become as same as its image sources, it needs a mirror device to make the projection appear as same as the source. If not, the image source has to make as an Invert object.
  • The acrylic thickness is made a distortion on the image projection, which is the audience’s eyes would be seeing the image projection become double. This happened because the screen is too thick and each of its sides projects its own image.